Russian Gold Hallmarks

Russian Gold Hallmarks. 24k Gold Cross Necklace. Solid Yellow Gold Ring.

Russian Gold Hallmarks

russian gold hallmarks

    russian gold

  • While pure gold is yellow in color, colored gold can be developed into various colors. These colors are generally obtained by alloying gold with other elements in various proportions.
  • A name for a gold-copper alloy more commonly called rose gold. The alloy was popular in Russia at one time but the term is now less common than it was

    hallmarks

  • A mark stamped on articles of gold, silver, or platinum in Britain, certifying their standard of purity
  • (hallmark) a distinctive characteristic or attribute
  • A distinctive feature, esp. one of excellence
  • (hallmark) authentication: a mark on an article of trade to indicate its origin and authenticity
  • A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of precious metals — platinum, gold, silver and in some nations, palladium. In a more general sense, the term ”” can also be used to refer to any distinguishing characteristic or trait.

russian gold hallmarks – Russian Silversmiths'

Russian Silversmiths' Hallmarks 1700 to 1917
Russian Silversmiths' Hallmarks 1700 to 1917
With the fall of the Communist Regime and the freeing of travel restrictions to Russia, plus the growing wealth of many more of the Russian people, there has been an exceptional growth in interest of Russian silver throughout the world. Consquently, it has become very collectable and has been fetching high prices at the sales. The author has worked on this project for many years and his efforts have provided a unique book of marks and insight into the Masters who produced this silver in Russia. Packed with useful information, plus a list of the major Silversmiths and their marks, it covers a Glossary of terms, Artels, Cyrillic alphabet, Assay Office marks by symbol and by town, marks in Cyrillic and Latin scripts and much more. This is the only English language book on the subject in print that we know of, and as such, will be an asset for all collectors.

Misc. International Goods

Misc. International Goods
Polish painting on glass – Vistula (Wisla) River in Warsaw

The painting can be realistic or abstract. Realistic reverse paintings are more challenging to create as one must, for example, in painting a face, to put the pupil of an eye on the glass before the iris, exactly the opposite of normal painting. If this is neglected the artist will not be able to correct the error as they will not get in between the glass and the paint already applied. No such care need be taken with the abstract form, but with this form there is not a good idea how the piece will look like until it is finished. This process is not like stained or leaded glass work in that it is not intended to hang in a window with light coming through the piece. Hanging on a wall, framed or unframed, with a lot of light directed towards the piece provides best viewing.

Russian Lacquer Pin

The techniques of production for these miniature works of art include the application of several layers of paint, each fully dried and then coated with a transparent lacquer, before the final steps of polishing occurs. Translucency is a hallmark of the style. In the hands of an expert, the colors are rich, and the finished piece glows as if alive. Mother-of-pearl, both fresh water and river, lends a wonderful stylistic quality. Gold, silver, bronze, and aluminum powders are frequently mixed with the oils. Painting is on papier-mache, mother-of-pearl, wood and can be inset into a handmade metal surround. Many times the clasp is a safety pin embedded into the papier-mache. Each piece serves multiple functions: first, as affordable wearable art, second, as frameable art, and third, an heirloom to passed on to younger family members.

Russian Spoons (painted in the traditional folk style)

This painting technique emerged in the 17th century in the Nizhny Novgorod Region, near the trading village of Khokhloma, to which it owes its name. The technique of Khokhloma painting has hardly changed to this day: fine cut articles made of teil or aspen trees are covered with a special base, smeared with aluminum powder, and painted with heat-resistant dyes. When the objects are covered with lacquer, their silver patterns become golden in color. The traditional decorative motif combines entwined grass and flowers painted in fiery cinnabar, as well as black and sparkling gold hues; these designs decorate mugs, serving spoons, ladles, and small barrels. The wooden articles are resistant to both water and organic acids. The Khokhloma technique is used not only for decorating pottery, but for souvenirs, furniture, and household items as well.

Sicilian puppet

The fate of puppets and marionettes in Italy took an upward turn in the 16C, when the aristocracy took an interest in marionettes. The spread to a wider, paying audience came about in the 18C. But it was not until the mid-19C that the puppet show became a genre, complete with shiny armor, swords and agile movements in fight scenes.

Puppets are made of wood and are jointed with metal hinges (the warriors, at least); their manipulation is controlled by lengths of wire connected to the head and right hand. The embossed armor is usually made of bronze or copper. There are two main schools: Palermo and Catania (associated with the school of Acireale), which builds puppets to different criteria.

Chinese Knot (all tied using one thread)

Like Christmas trees and wreaths in the west. the Chinese knot is the most favored ornament for most Chinese families during the Lunar New Year celebration. Almost every shopping mall in Beijing has a special counter to sell Chinese knots of various sizes. shapes and colors.

No matter how different the knots are the messages the ancient craft delivers are similar: offering blessings of happiness, prosperity, love and good luck.

The major characteristic of the Chinese knot is that every one is tied from a single thread (at least 1 meter long) but looks the same from both the front and back. A typical Chinese knot is red but it can also be gold, green, blue or black. Flowers, birds, dragons, the phoenix, fish and shoes are the most common patterns used in the Chinese knot.

Drawing of Tiger on rice paper

Chinese painting mainly uses the following tools: brush, ink, xuan paper (rice paper), and water.
Chinese paintings are much more like drawing. Contour drawing is the basis of most Chinese Ink brush paintings. It consists of the drawing of the outlines, and some internal lines, to define the form of the subject. The lines can vary in thickness to express shadow or strength. Also, painting with an ink brush on rice paper is much more difficult than drawing.

In Chinese culture, the tiger is considered to be the king of all animals (in much the way we see the lion in western culture).

Russian Wooden Chickens Swing Toy

Toy and sculpture-making of Bogorodskoye is based on the ancient principles of medieval Russian art. Its cultural origin is connected with Trinity Monastery of St. Serg

Pop 723959 Elev 61

Pop 723959  Elev 61
The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth-largest city in California and the fourteenth-largest in the United States, with a 2005 population of 739,426. It is located on the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula and has traditionally been the focal point of the San Francisco Bay Area. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the United States.

In 1776, the Spanish colonized the place that was to become San Francisco, establishing a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named for Francis of Assisi. With the advent of the California Gold Rush in 1848, the city entered a period of rapid growth. After being devastated by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt and is today one of the most recognizable cities in the world.

San Francisco is renowned for its months-long episodes of fog, steep rolling hills, the eclectic mix of Victorian and modern architecture, and its peninsular location surrounded on three sides by the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay. Famous hallmarks and landmarks include the Golden Gate Bridge, Alcatraz Island, the cable cars, the Transamerica Pyramid, and Chinatown.

Geography

San Francisco is located on the west coast of the U.S. at the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula and includes significant stretches of the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay within its boundaries. Several islands are part of the city, notably Alcatraz, Treasure Island, and the adjacent Yerba Buena Island. Also included are the uninhabited Farallon Islands, 27 miles offshore in the Pacific Ocean. The land within the city limits roughly forms a seven by seven mile square, which has become a colloquialism referring to the city’s shape.

San Francisco is famous for its hills, which are defined as elevations over 100 ft (30 m). There are a total of 43 hills within city limits. Some neighborhoods are named after the hill on which they are situated, including Nob Hill, Pacific Heights, Russian Hill, Potrero Hill, and Telegraph Hill.

Near the geographic center of the city, southwest of the downtown area, are a series of less densely populated hills. Dominating this area is Mount Sutro, the site of Sutro Tower, a large red and white radio and television transmission tower. Nearby is Twin Peaks, a pair of hills resting at one of the city’s highest points and a popular overlook spot for tour groups. San Francisco’s tallest hill, Mount Davidson, is 925 ft (282 m) high, and is capped with a 103 ft (31.4 m) tall cross built in 1934.

The San Andreas and Hayward Faults are responsible for much earthquake activity, even though neither passes through the city itself. It was the San Andreas Fault which slipped and caused the earthquakes in 1906 and 1989. Minor earthquakes occur on a regular basis. The threat of major earthquakes plays a large role in the city’s infrastructure development. New buildings must meet high structural standards, and older buildings and bridges must be retrofitted to comply with new building codes.

San Francisco’s shoreline has grown beyond its natural limits. Entire neighborhoods such as the Marina and Hunters Point, as well as large sections of the Embarcadero sit on areas of landfill. Treasure Island was constructed from material dredged from the bay as well as material resulting from tunneling through Yerba Buena Island during the construction of the Bay Bridge. Such land tends to be unstable during earthquakes; the resultant liquefaction causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake.

A quotation incorrectly attributed to Mark Twain goes, "The coldest winter I ever spent was a summer in San Francisco." San Francisco benefits from California’s Mediterranean climate, characterized by mild wet winters and warm dry summers. However, surrounded on three sides by water, San Francisco’s climate is strongly influenced by the cool currents of the Pacific Ocean which tend to moderate temperature swings and produce a remarkably mild climate with little seasonal temperature variation. Average summertime high temperatures in San Francisco peak at 70°F (21 °C) and are 20°F (9 °C) lower than they are in nearby inland locations like Livermore.[27] Winters are mild, with daytime highs near 60°F (15 °C), and lows almost never reach freezing temperatures. The months of May-September are quite dry, with rain a common occurrence from November-March. Snowfall is extraordinarily rare, with only 10 instances recorded since 1852.

The combination of cold ocean water and the high heat of the California mainland creates the city’s characteristic fog that can cover the western half of the city all day during the summer and early fall. The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods, in late spring, and during September and October, which are the warmest months of the year. Due to its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Franci

russian gold hallmarks

russian gold hallmarks

Animal Farm
After the technical achievement of Babe, it was inevitable that “talking animal” effects would be applied to the serious themes of George Orwell’s Animal Farm. A bitterly satirical indictment of Stalinist Russia and the failure of Communism, Orwell’s 1945 novel is a time-honored classic, so it’s only fitting that this TNT production remains largely faithful to Orwell’s potent narrative. A showcase for the impressive creations of Jim Henson’s Creature Shop (where director John Stephenson was a veteran supervisor), the film employs animatronic critters and computer animation to tell the story of uprising, unity, and tragic rebellion among the animals of a British farm.
The politics of “Animalism” are initially effective, ousting enemy humans according to rules ordained by Old Major, the barnyard pig whose death sets the stage for the corruptive influence of the pig Napoleon, who cites superior intelligence as his right to superiority. This tyrannical reign destroys the farm’s stability, and the film–decidedly not for young children–preserves Orwell’s dark, cynical view of absolute power corrupting absolutely. Particularly effective is a propaganda film shown to the barnyard collective, and certain scenes–while not as impressive as the Babe films–powerfully convey the force of Orwell’s story through animal “performance.” Animal Farm occasionally falters in its emotional impact (the fate of the horse Boxer should be heart-rending, and it isn’t), but it’s certainly blessed with an elite voice cast, including Peter Ustinov, Patrick Stewart, Pete Postlethwaite, Julia Ormond, Kelsey Grammer, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Paul Scofield, and Ian Holm. Not the masterpiece it might’ve been, this is nevertheless a worthy representation of Orwell’s novel. (Ages 8 and older) –Jeff Shannon

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